A multifaceted review on dihydromyricetin resources, extraction, bioavailability, biotransformation, bioactivities, and food applications with future perspectives to maximize its value
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Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau
School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, via Sant’ Agostino 1, 62032 Camerino, Italy
Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
Molecular Preventive Medicine, University Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79108 Freiburg, Germany
Pharmacognosy Department, College of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini St., Cairo P.B. 11562, Egypt
Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835, Egypt
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, University of Vigo, Spain
Submission date: 2021-11-01
Acceptance date: 2021-11-01
Online publication date: 2021-12-17
Publication date: 2021-12-20
Corresponding author
Jianbo Xiao   

Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, University of Vigo, Spain
eFood 2021;2(4):164-184
Natural bioactive compounds present a better alternative to prevent and treat chronic diseases owing to their lower toxicity and abundant resources. (+)-Dihydromyricetin (DMY) is a flavanonol, possessing numerous interesting bioactivities with abundant resources. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in DMY natural resources, stereoisomerism, physicochemical properties, extraction, biosynthesis, pharmacokinetics, and biotransformation. Stereoisomerism of DMY should be considered for better indication of its efficacy. Biotechnological approach presents a potential tool for the production of DMY using microbial cell factories. DMY high instability is related to its powerful antioxidant capacity due to pyrogallol moiety in ring B, and whether preparation of other analogues could demonstrate improved properties. DMY demonstrates poor bioavailability based on its low solubility and permeability with several attempts to improve its pharmacokinetics and efficacy. DMY possesses various pharmacological effects, which have been proven by many in vitro and in vivo experiments, while clinical trials are rather scarce, with underlying action mechanisms remaining unclear. Consequently, to maximize the usefulness of DMY in nutraceuticals, improvement in bioavailability, and better understanding of its actions mechanisms and drug interactions ought to be examined in the future along with more clinical evidence.
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